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东亚佛学评论(第4辑)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:东亚佛学评论(第4辑)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

推荐语:社会科学文献出版社出版荣誉出版

作者:刘成有编

出版社:社会科学文献出版社

出版时间:2020-02-01

书籍编号:30611808

ISBN:9787520161657

正文语种:中文

字数:301005

版次:1

所属分类:社会科学-宗教

全书内容:

东亚佛学评论(第4辑)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载








法藏研究


论法藏思想中觉与不觉之相生关系:以《大乘起信论义记》中若干章节为中心


〔美〕詹密罗(Robert M.Gimello)


内容摘要:本文从法藏《大乘起信论义记》中两处彼此独立但又互有关联的文字着手,讨论其思想中关于觉与不觉二者之间互具关系的论述。《大乘起信论义记》悬谈第三之“显教分齐”为法藏针对《大乘起信论》之判教论。文中先分别诸教优劣,再判定《大乘起信论》所特有之教义在佛教思想体系中之地位。法藏确认这一教义为《大乘起信论》关于如来藏与阿梨/赖耶识和合之理论,并依此判《大乘起信论》为“大乘终教”或“熟教”,从而将其纳入华严五教体系,列于五教之第三位上。这一教义之核心,在于指出染污之业心(即所谓“不觉”之心)来自染污掩盖之下不动、清净、光明之心(即所谓“觉”心),并构成此心发生作用时的表现。换言之,这一教义认为心之“染”“净”两种状态,貌似对立之两方,本质上却一体互具,构成所谓“一心”。本文试图说明,法藏将这一教义用来阐释华严之“理事无碍”,并以此为基础,进一步发展华严理论,最终将“理事无碍”置于“事事无碍”之上,定义为华严之终极真理。在《大乘起信论义记》关于心生灭之“不觉”特征的论述中,法藏进一步探讨了如来藏与阿梨/赖耶识的和合。其论点不仅复杂,而且据笔者所知亦相当独特,谓阿梨/赖耶识中之有如来藏、不觉中之有细微之觉,亦可借唯识理论予以论证。唯识谓业相之中不仅有见分与相分之别,而且还有自证分。此自证分通过玄奘与陈那,被法藏命名为“当梨耶自体分”,谓“觉”以性净如来藏的形式存在于“不觉”之阿梨/赖耶识中,即表现为后者业相“极细微”之“自证分”。“自”者,自有也,非外来也,强调“觉”之为“不觉”之本有也。如此,法藏解释“觉”与“不觉”之互具关系,说明二者并非两种不同之心,而是同一之心(所谓“一心”)所具备之两种不同特征。这一关系可模拟“莫比乌斯环”之两面:此环其实只有一个表面,但是在旋转半圈再把两端黏贴上之后,看起来似乎就有两个表面了。如来藏与阿梨/赖耶识,觉与不觉,即同一纸带之两面也!


关键词:觉,《大乘起信论义记》,法藏,不觉


作者简介:詹密罗(Robert M.Gimello),诺特丹大学教授。


One of the Qǐxìn lùn \'s several distinctive claims,inspired especially by the Bodhiruci(菩提流支)translation of the Lakāvatāra Sūtra (T 670:《入楞伽经》),is that the ālayavijñāna,the foundational consciousness of the ordinary,unawakened sentient being,consisting in a stream of“arising”(prav东亚佛学评论(第4辑)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载tti,生)and“ceasing”(niv东亚佛学评论(第4辑)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载tti,灭)of momentary thought-impulses(念),is based upon the tathāgatagarbha,the inherent buddhahood of the sentient being understood as an inviolate,radiant,intrinsic purity of mind.And on the basis of this claim the Qǐxìn lùnadvances the further claim that,precisely because it is based on the tathāgatagarbha,the ālayavijñānamust be understood to be a paradoxical“coincidence of opposites”—specifically,the concurrence or coinherence of awakening and ignorance.As the text says:


As regards the mind\'s arising and ceasing,1it is on the basis of the tathāgatagarbha that there is an arising and ceasing mind,which is to say that(the mind\'s)non-arising and non-ceasing is united with its arising and ceasing in such a way that they are neither one and the same nor different.Called the ālayavijñāna,this is consciousness in two senses such as can both encompass and produce all dharmas.What are these two(senses of the ālayavijñāna)? The first is(the ālayavijñāna)in the sense of(the mind)awake;the second is(the ālayavijñāna)in the sense of(the mind)unawake.


心生灭者。依如来藏故,有生灭心。所谓不生不灭与生灭和合非一非异。名为阿梨耶识,此识有二种义,能摄一切法生一切法。云何为二?一者觉义。二者不觉义。(T 1666:32.576b7-11)


As we shall see,Fǎzàng\'s interpretation of this claim amounts to what one might call a“dyophysite”view of the“arising and ceasing mind”(生灭心),i.e.,the ālayavijñāna.This foundational mind,he tells us,is actually a single mind but a single mind possessed of two distinct natures,identities,or essential qualities(二相).These two essential qualities of the ālaya,although functionally distinct,are said to be nevertheless one and the same.Indeed,they are said to be one and the same in a particular and especially strong sense.It is not simply that the mind is a mere mixture or coincidence of“awake”(觉)and“unawake”(不觉)consciousness.The mind awake and the mind unawake are not simply two parts or phases of the mind\'s operation.Rather,foundational consciousness as the condition of being awake and foundational consciousness as the condition of not being awake are said actually to form,comprise,or constitute each other.They are,Fǎzàng says,“mutually constitutive”(相成).If one may use a modern metaphor admittedly unknown to the Buddhist tradition one might speak of the arising and ceasing mind as a kind of“Möbius strip(莫比乌斯环)mind”,in which the awake and the unawake natures of the mind constitute each other in much the same way that what might appear to be the two“surfaces”of a Möbius strip are found actually to form a single continuous surface.More will be said about this metaphor below.


Fǎzàng,of course,was quite aware that this teaching of the Qǐxìn lùn (and the Lakāvatāra)was anomalous.In this regard it is like other anomalous teachings of the treatise such as the teaching that suchness(tathatā,真如),which is synonymous with the unconditioned(asaṃsk东亚佛学评论(第4辑)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载ta,无为),is nevertheless subject to permeation(vasanā,熏习)by the thoroughly conditioned(saṃsk东亚佛学评论(第4辑)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载ta,有为)phenomenon of ignorance.The questions such teachings raise are unavoidable.Is not permeation itself a kind of conditioning? If it is,and if suchness is permeated by ignorance,can it be said to be truly unconditioned? And if permeation is not a kind of conditioning then what is it? In particular Fǎzàng was aware that the Qǐxìn lùn \'s concept of the ālayavijñānawas variously at odds with the reputedly“orthodox”traditions of Yogācāra in which the category of a foundational consciousness was originally conceived and formulated.We should therefore approach these doctrinal anomalies of the Qǐxìn lùnin the way in which Fǎzàng himself did,i.e.,by dealing explicitly with the question of the relationship of the Qǐxìn lùnto the other doctrines and scriptural authorities of the Mahāyāna tradition.Initial attention will therefore be given in this paper to the doxographical context of Fǎzàng\'s interpretation,i.e.,his views on the subject of where among the varieties of Mahāyāna scripture and doctrine the Qǐxìn lùn properly belongs.This will lead finally to a consideration of one of Fǎzàng\'s most surprising interpretative moves,namely,his intriguing but largely overlooked use of the concept of self-awareness(svasaṃvitti/svasaṃvedana)to explain how it is that foundational consciousness,the arising and ceasing mind,can be said to be both awake and not awake.


We begin,then,with an analysis of Fǎzàng\'s doxographical approach to the text,i.e.,his answer to the question of where,among the varieties of Buddhism,the Qǐxìn lùn properly belongs.We will then proceed to discuss aspects of his reading of the particular section of the Qǐxìn lùn that discusses the theme of the foundational or“arising and ceasing”mind as the coinherence of the mind\'s awake and not-awake natures.


I.Doxo

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