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民间组织参与国际发展:欧洲与中国pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:民间组织参与国际发展:欧洲与中国pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

推荐语:社会科学文献出版社出版荣誉出版

作者:李小云,董强

出版社:社会科学文献出版社

出版时间:2020-03-01

书籍编号:30611875

ISBN:9787520160148

正文语种:中英对照

字数:409518

版次:1

所属分类:社会科学-社会学

全书内容:

民间组织参与国际发展:欧洲与中国pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载








民间组织参与国际发展:欧洲与中国pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

序言


随着新兴国家特别是中国经济的快速发展以及新兴国家发展方式影响力的急剧扩大,国际发展援助体系正在发生重大变化。中国在发展中国家尤其是非洲国家发展事务中表现活跃,受到越来越多的关注,被称为“新兴援助国”。


从新中国成立到现在,中国的援助大致经历了三个不同的阶段。第一个阶段是20世纪50~80年代。在这个阶段,中国即使处于经济困难时期,也仍然为发展中国家提供了可观的对外援助。这一时期的对外援助几乎是单向性的和“利他性”的,甚至很多时候是超过自身能力的。第二个阶段是改革开放以后到21世纪初,中国的国际生存环境有了根本性改变,对外援助也开始调整,逐步转向经济意义上的互惠互利。中国对外援助的战略转向服从经济建设大局,兼顾地缘政治等其他因素。第三个阶段是21世纪至今。21世纪以来,国际格局发生了很大的变化,中国的国际地位迅速提高,中国的成长也引起西方社会的担忧,新的地缘政治因素开始出现,有利于中国的全球化因素开始发生变化。中国逐渐形成了有中国特色的援助体系,成为国际发展体系中新兴的援助力量。2015年,习近平主席先后在联合国峰会和中非合作论坛峰会上,宣布了中国未来一系列援助承诺,主要包括建立20亿美元的南南合作援助基金、200亿元人民币的中国气候变化南南合作基金、对非提供50亿美元的无偿援助和无息贷款以及包括部分优惠贷款的350亿美元贷款额度。中国的援助体系形成了以政府援助为主、企业参与为辅的主体格局,但是长期以来缺乏民间组织的参与。


近年来,特别是党的十八大以来,中国政府开始重视民间组织的作用,提出社会管理创新并升级为社会治理创新,从而在制度层面为民间组织的发育与发展提供了巨大的空间。2013年,中国共产党十八届三中全会审议通过的《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》提出要激发社会组织活力,重点培育和优先发展行业协会商会类、科技类、公益慈善类、城乡社区服务类社会组织,成立时直接依法申请登记。2013年9月,国务院办公厅出台了《关于政府向社会力量购买服务的指导意见》,提出适合由民间组织提供和解决的公共服务,由政府向民间组织购买。在国家多方面的政策推动下,中国的民间组织近年来发展迅速,规模和质量都在快速上升。根据民政部的统计,截至2018年底,中国共有民间组织81.7万个,其中社会团体36.6万个,民办非企业单位44.4万个,基金会7034个。2018年全年,中国各地共接收社会捐赠款物919.7亿元。


中国民间组织在关注国内发展事务的同时,也开始在外部环境改善的情况下关注中国以外地区的发展事务。2004年印度洋发生海啸时,中国民间组织开始走出国门。2015年尼泊尔地震时,中国民间组织开始进行大规模的海外行动。尽管中国民间组织在海外得到中国外交系统的协调支持,但是其自发的海外行动依然面临巨大的挑战。这种挑战的关键因素是中国民间组织没有得到中国援助体系的政策与资金支持。通过研究欧盟及其成员国的民间组织参与国际发展的经验,不难看出欧洲民间组织国际化的快速发展得益于欧洲国家的发展援助支持。


2015年,中国—欧盟政策对话支持项目二期设立了中欧国际发展合作联合研究:民间组织在国际发展中角色经验分享的项目活动。该项目活动主要包括:中欧民间组织参与国际发展联合研究启动研讨会,中国民间组织赴德国、缅甸培训考察,中欧民间组织参与国际发展联合研究、中国民间组织参与国际发展项目成果发布会。中欧民间组织参与国际发展联合研究的目标:第一,对欧洲民间组织参与国际发展的历史、法律与政策框架、基本状况、实践与做法、经验与教训进行文献梳理;第二,对中国民间组织的发展状况、参与国际发展的制度架构、法律与政策环境、基本状况、实践与做法、面临的挑战进行文献与实地分析;第三,基于欧洲与中国的差距,分别向欧盟、中国政府以及中国民间组织提出相关的政策建议。


基于中国—欧盟政策对话支持项目的资助,中方高级专家中国农业大学教授、中国国际发展网络主席李小云,欧盟高级专家Thomas Bonschab,中方专家中国农业大学副教授董强,中方专家中国扶贫基金会国际发展部主任伍鹏组成研究团队,对欧洲和中国民间组织参与国际发展进行了系统的研究。本书初稿由董强、李小云于2016年撰写的项目研究报告构成,2019年进行了相关内容的更新与修订。感谢中国—欧盟政策对话支持项目二期项目负责人Juergen Ritter对此项研究工作的支持。感谢欧盟驻华代表团发展与合作处处长Lars Gronvald先生、项目官员Jady Wang女士对此项研究工作的指导与支持。感谢刘一平、王春艳在此书出版过程中严谨的校对。最后感谢韩莹莹高质量的专业编辑工作。


董强、李小云


2019年10月

Preface


With the rapid economic development of emerging countries and the subsequent influx of foreign entities influencing their development processes, traditional assistance systems for international development are undergoing tremendous changes. China is active in the development processes in emerging countries, African countries in particular, where China’s involvement in these nations has led to China being called an “emerging donor”.


From the founding of New China to the present day, China’s foreign aid has gone through three different stages. Firstly, this stage lasted from the 1950s to 1980s. In this period, China offered a considerable amount of foreign aid to developing countries even during times of domestic economic hardship. However, China’s foreign aid during this period was almost unidirectional and “altruistic”, and the amount was even often beyond its capacity. Secondly, from the reform and opening up of China to 2000, the international environment for China to develop has undergone fundamental changes, and China has begun to adjust its foreign aid strategy by gradually turning its purpose to mutual economic benefits. China’s foreign aid strategy during this period was subject to its wider economic development policy and also emphasized geopolitics among other factors. Thirdly, this period went from the 21st century to the present. Since the current century, the international landscape has been profoundly reshaped. China’s international status has rapidly increased and its growth has also caused concerns in Western countries. New geopolitical factors have begun to emerge, and factors that are conducive to China’s globalization have also started to change. China’s new approach to foreign aid is in the making with Chinese characteristic and has become a new force in international development systems. President Xi Jinping announced a package of aid commitments at the UN Summit and the FOCAC Summit in 2015, including establishing a $2 billion fund for South-South cooperation, a 20-billion-yuan South-South climate cooperation fund, providing Africa with $5 billion for grants and interest-free loans as well as $35 billion funding that includes some concessional loans. China’s aid system shapes a structure where government assistance plays the leading role and enterprises serve as supplementary roles. However, for a long time, it is witnessed that only a few NGOs have participated in China’s aid framework.


In recent years, especially since the 18th CPC National Congress, the Chinese government has started to recognize the importance of NGOs in foreign aid proposed social management innovation and then advanced to social governance innovation, which equipped the cultivation and development of NGOs with notable space at the institutional level. In 2013, the Decision of the CPC Central Committee on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Deepening the Reforms is raised at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th CPC National Congress and proposed that China should stimulate vitality and focus on fostering and developing NGOs such as trade NGOs and chambers of commerce, scientific and technological NGOs, charity and philanthropic organizations, and urban and rural community service organizations. These organizations can directly apply for registration in accordance with the law when they are established. In September 2013, the General Office of the State Council issued the Guiding Opinions on Government Purchasing Services from Social Forces. The opinions proposed that the government should purchase certain public services that are suitable to be provided and managed by NGOs. Promoted by a series of policies of the State, NGOs in China have been witnessed rapid development in recent years, and the number and efficiency of NGOs have been remarkably increasing. According to the statistics from the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MoCA), as of the end of 2018, there were 817,000 NGOs in China, incl

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