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海南黎族乐器图鉴pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:海南黎族乐器图鉴pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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作者:曹时娟著

出版社:上海音乐出版社

出版时间:2017-04-01

书籍编号:30612671

ISBN:9787552313000

正文语种:中文

字数:18005

版次:

所属分类:社会科学-传统文化

全书内容:

海南黎族乐器图鉴pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载








前言


这本精美的图文集《海南黎族乐器图鉴》是近几年来“海南黎族民间音乐文化保护与传承研究及应用”课题组深入黎族地区田野实践,学习、整理和研究黎族音乐的心得体会。


2013年,我们承担了海南省委宣传部课题项目“海南黎族民间音乐文化保护与传承研究及应用”的研究任务。几年来,我们的研究团队按照规划步骤,有条不紊地有序推进,做了如下科学研究工作:


一、2014年10月,编辑出版了《黎族民歌简明教程》(南海出版公司),开创了海南高校乡土音乐教材的先例。我们认为,地域音乐文化的教育与传承,是一项长期不懈、系统的工程,它不仅仅局限在基础音乐教育,而应实行初等、高等教育一体化。目前,该教材已经在海南师范大学音乐学院使用,不仅填补地方音乐文化教材之空缺,而且为海南区域音乐文化传承尽了一份绵薄之力。


二、2014年10月,经相关专家推荐,“文化部民族民间文化发展中心海南音乐文化研究基地”正式落户海南师范大学,秉承“为地方经济文化发展服务”的宗旨,带动了一批科研项目的产生,形成了以项目促进基地建设,以基地建设带动科学研究工作的新局面。


三、2014年12月,海南师范大学音乐学院主办了“首届全国黎族音乐传承与保护学术研讨会”,国内著名的音乐专家及各高校教授近百人参与了研讨,集专家学者智慧,为海南音乐文化发展献计献策,凤凰网、新华网、人民网、海南网、海南新闻联播等新闻媒体予以重点报道,在省内外产生了良好的声誉。


四、产生了一批专研黎族音乐文化研究的学术论文,在国内各大音乐类核心期刊发表,如《搭建学术研究平台,推动黎族音乐发展——“黎族音乐传承与保护学术研讨会”综述》(曹时娟、李阳:《人民音乐》,2015年第2期),《后集成时代的黎族音乐研究》(王晓平:《音乐与表演》,2016年第3期)等。


五、2016年12月13日,由海南师范大学音乐学院主办的“黎族音乐文化保护·传承·发展交流研讨会”在海南师范大学隆重召开。参会人员来自海南省文联、省内高校音乐学者以及中小学教师、黎族音乐文化传承人、学生共计二百多人。会议旨在研讨黎族音乐文化保护、传承及发展,推动海南省文化建设发展,内容由学术研讨、文化考察两个部分组成,涉及主旨演讲、黎族乐器展演、歌曲演唱音乐活动等,对于海南本土音乐文化的发展与延续具有重要的指导意义。


目前,黎族音乐文化在国内的研究处于滞后状态,从研究成果来看,主要集中在民歌,且研究方法单一,黎族竹木器乐虽有学者涉及,但其数量、分类、曲目风格、文化特征等还有待进一步考察分析。经过长时间的准备,我们编辑出版的《海南黎族乐器图鉴》,在田野调查的基础上,考虑历时性渊源、变化发展的同时,尽可能做到全面收集,客观分析;做到图文并茂,清晰准确,以期得到国内外音乐界同仁对于海南黎族音乐文化的关注,起到抛砖引玉之效。


为了便于参考,我们在拍摄乐器形制和演奏图片的过程中,尽量做到真实性和艺术性相结合的原则,每件乐器除了形制、演奏、应用等图片外,还做简单的文字介绍。最后有相关内容的三篇学术文章,以期了解每件乐器的全貌。


在收集、整理、拍摄乐器过程中,我们得到了海南省黎族音乐传承人黄昭安、海南省摄影家黄一鸣以及海南电视台的鼎力支持,在此深表感谢。


由于资料有限,学力不足,不妥之处,敬请学界同仁批评指正。

传统乐器篇


Traditional Instruments

一、吹奏乐器



哩咧


Li lie

figure_0007_0001

哩咧形制图

figure_0007_0002

哩咧演奏图

哩咧又称“遭咧”“罗咧”,竹制竖吹单管乐器,黎族传统乐器。它分为管身和吹嘴两个部分,管身由长短粗细各不相同的竹管叠套而成。竹管的节数由五节到九节不等,最小的如拇指般大小,最大的可达30厘米以上。


哩咧的演奏指法与唢呐相似,音准、音色靠气息控制,吹奏技巧丰富,有打音、震舌、历音、叠音、颤音,还有单吐、双吐、花舌、滑音、断音、顿音等。


Lilie (“Zaolie” or “Luolie” in Li language) is a single-tube bamboo-made wind instrument that is blew vertically, and is a traditional instrument of the Li nationality. Each Lilie has two parts, namely the body and the mouthpiece. The body is made of different-size bamboo tubes arranged telescopically. There are generally five to nine sections of tubes of each Lilie, the smallest of which is as big as a thumb, while the biggest is over 30 cm.


The fingering of playing Lilie is similar to that of Suona (a double-reed horn, sometimes known as Chinese oboe or trumpet), the intonation and timber of which are controlled by the performer’s breath. There’s a variety of techniques in Lilie playing, including tapping, flutter tonguing, flying finger, multiphonics, trill, single tonguing, double tonguing, glissando, staccato and popped notes.

figure_0008_0003

哩咧演奏图

鼻箫


Bi xiao

figure_0009_0004

鼻箫形制图

figure_0009_0005

鼻箫演奏图

鼻箫又名“虽老”“屯卡”“圆哈”,是黎族青年男女表达爱情时的常用乐器。传统鼻箫多为即兴演奏,恋人们可以根据不同的曲调音色辨认出自己的爱人。演奏时,双手持箫右斜胸前,用箫管挡住右鼻孔,用左鼻孔均匀稳定地吹气。音色低沉,柔和,曲调优美,如泣如诉。


Bixiao (“bi” means nose), also named “Suilao”“Tunka” or “Yuanha” in Li language. As a traditional instrument of the Li, Bixiao is usually used by young man and women to express their love. Playing of traditional Bixiao is often improvisational, and the young people can recognize their lovers through different tunes and timbre. During performance, hold the instrument to your lower right with both hands, covering your right nostril with the embouchure while blowing evenly and stably with the left one. The tone color of Bixiao is often deep, soft, melodic and touching.

figure_0010_0006

鼻箫演奏图


Lun

figure_0011_0007

伦形制图

figure_0011_0008

伦演奏图

黎族竹制吹奏乐器,流行于海南五指山地区。伦一般长为9 0厘米~110厘米,粗3厘米,首端留节约2.5厘米,管身开4个音孔(前三后一),音色低沉、优美动听,是黎族人民传达思想感情的重要乐器。


Lun is a Li bamboo wind instrument, which is popular around Wuzhishan area in Hainan province. It is generally 90cm~110 cm long, 3 cm thick, with a 2.5 cm-long head section (including a bamboo joint) and four finger holes on its body (three in the front and one in the back). With its deep and beautiful sound, Lun plays an important part in communicating thoughts and feelings of the Li people.

figure_0012_0009

伦演奏图

哩篓


Li lou

figure_0013_0010

哩篓形制图

figure_0013_0011

哩篓演奏图

黎语中将哩篓称为“咪万哒”,簧鸣竹管乐器,流行于海南五指山、保亭一带。


哩篓是稻杆笛的代替乐器,是黎族同胞在收割山兰稻时,将较粗的稻茎揉裂做吹口制作而成。因发出的声音类似于“哩喽”,而象声取名为“哩篓”。


Lilou (“Miwanda” in Li language) is a reed bamboo wind instrument popular in the areas of Wuzhishan and Baoting.


It is a substitute for the rice straw flute, which is made by the Li people who crack the relatively thick straw to create an embouchure while reaping the Shanlan rice. This instrument is named Lilou because it makes a “lilou” sound.

figure_0014_0012

哩篓演奏图

哔哒


Bi da

figure_0015_0013

哔哒形制图

figure_0015_0014

哔哒演奏图

哔哒即排箫,竹制吹管乐器,流行于海南保亭、五指山一带。传统的哔哒是四孔簧类乐器,后经改良,由两支长短、大小、音高相同的哔哒并排捆绑而成,管身长22厘米,内径0.3厘米。顶端留节,削成长2厘米,宽0.2厘米的簧片,管身设8孔(前七后一)。


演奏时双手拇指同时按住背孔,食指、中指和无名指按前孔,口含簧片,吹气鼓簧发音。哔哒音色清脆明亮,是极具代表的黎族乐器。


Bida, also named as pan flute, is a bamboo wind instrument popular in Wuzhishan and Baoting areas. It used to be a four-hole reed instrument, and has been improved into a bundle of two flutes in same size and same pitch. The instrument is 22 cm long, 0.3 cm inner diameter. There’s a 2 cm long and 0.2 cm wide reed made by skiving the head section and eight finger holes (seven in the front and one in the back) on its body.


When playing Bida, hold the back holes with both thumbs and the front holes with the index, middle and ring fingers while blowing the reed to make a sound. Bida sounds crisp and bright, and it’s one of the highly representative instruments of the Li.

figure_0016_0015

哔哒演奏图

灼吧


Zhuo ba

figure_0017_0016

灼吧形制图

figure_0017_0017

灼吧演奏图

灼吧是最具黎族特色的乐器之一,黎语称“伦夏”。传统灼吧的外形酷似数字“7”,与西洋乐器巴松相似,又称折尺形灼吧,其形制主要由两根竹管组成,长而粗的为主音管,细而短的为吹口,将细管横插入粗管上部。主音管是主要的发音部位,上端为自然竹节封堵,下端开口,其上有4到6个不等的按音孔。细管一般粗1. 5厘米,长4厘米~5厘米,横插入竹管上端距竹节3厘米~5厘米处,平时不用时可拆下。


灼吧音色清脆干净,优美动听,高音透彻明亮,低音圆润通透,是黎族同胞最喜爱的乐器之一。


Zhuoba (“Lunxia” in Li language) is one of the most distinctive Li instruments. Similarto bassoon, traditional Zhuoba looks like the number “7”, and has another name as folding-ruler Zhuoba. It’s mainly composed of two bamboo tubes. The long and thick one is the body, and the thin and short one is the mouthpiece, which is horizontally inserted into the top of the body. The body of Zhuoba is the main resonator, the top of which is plugged by the bamboo joint and the bottom is open. There are four to six finger holes on the body. The thin tube is 1.5 cm in width and 4cm~5 cm in length, which is inserted into the top 3-5 cm from the joint, and

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