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易地扶贫搬迁与贫困农户可持续生计pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:易地扶贫搬迁与贫困农户可持续生计pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

推荐语:

作者:刘伟,黎洁

出版社:社会科学文献出版社

出版时间:2020-05-01

书籍编号:30626515

ISBN:9787520167284

正文语种:中文

字数:268069

版次:1

所属分类:社会科学-社会学

全书内容:

易地扶贫搬迁与贫困农户可持续生计pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

易地扶贫搬迁与贫困农户可持续生计pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载


本书得到国家自然科学基金青年项目(71803149)、教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(18XJCZH005)、中国博士后面上项目(2019M653871XB)和陕西省教育厅人文社科专项科研计划项目(18JK0421)资助

摘要


易地扶贫搬迁是新型城镇化背景下精准扶贫、精准脱贫的有效实现路径。随着搬迁项目的持续推进,项目实施过程中存在的诸多问题都对这项活动的顺利执行提出了挑战。在这一形势下,政策制定者开始意识到实现移民搬迁农户生计可持续的重要性和紧迫性。易地扶贫搬迁可以通过影响农户的生计资本积累,修复、重建和提升农户的生计能力,进而调整和优化农户的生计策略,完成生计资本的重塑,实现移民生计可持续。然而,贫困山区的生态环境较脆弱,再加上其他形式的外力冲击以及政策环境的动态变化,极易使生计脆弱移民面临新的生计风险和掉入生计困境。可以发现,移民搬迁农户可持续生计的构建具有重要的政策意义和现实性,而对移民搬迁政策目标实现和微观农户能否实现“搬得出”、“稳得住”和“能致富”这些问题进行研究同样有现实意义。以往的研究对政府引导式自愿性移民给农户生计带来的影响缺乏系统论证,尤其是移民搬迁对农户生计能力的影响。


本书首先通过将易地扶贫搬迁作为政策干预变量引入经典的可持续生计分析框架,构建了适用于贫困山区易地扶贫搬迁对农户生计影响的可持续生计分析框架;其次,在此基础上基于农户生计资本和生计环境特征构建移民搬迁目标农户识别和瞄准模型,并论证了目标农户识别的决定、错误识别的原因和提升识别有效性的方法;再次,基于能力方法采用多维贫困指数测量了农户的生计能力,实证分析了移民搬迁变量对农户生计能力的影响;最后,通过构建易地扶贫搬迁对农户生计策略影响的分析框架,分析验证了移民搬迁变量对农户生计策略影响的双重作用。通过调查陕南安康市1404户农户样本,采用代理家计调查法、A-F多维贫困测量方法和倾向得分匹配法等分析方法,验证了理论框架的推论。


与现有研究相比,本书的主要创新如下。


第一,将易地扶贫搬迁作为政策干预变量引入经典的农户可持续生计分析框架,运用能力方法改进并构建了研究贫困山区易地扶贫搬迁对农户生计影响的可持续生计分析框架。从改进后的分析框架中可以看出,易地扶贫搬迁通过影响农户生计资本积累来实现生计能力再造,从而优化生计策略,重塑生计资本,最终实现移民可持续生计。现有研究主要关注移民搬迁对农户生计资本和生计策略的影响以及生计资本与生计策略之间的关系,而本书运用能力方法改进后的分析框架有效联结了可持续生计理论和能力贫困研究范式,弥补了当前可持续生计研究中对生计能力忽视的漏洞。移民生计能力的修复和重建是其实现可持续生计的原动力,本书在为可持续生计理论分析和实践检验提供新思路的同时,进一步丰富了移民生计的理论研究。


第二,基于农户生计资本和生计环境构建易地扶贫搬迁目标农户识别和瞄准模型,论证了移民搬迁政策目标识别的决定性因素、发生瞄准偏差的原因、提升瞄准效率和识别有效性的方法。将农户家庭的生计资本和生计环境特征变量作为重要影响因素,采用Probit模型验证了影响易地扶贫搬迁选择的重要决定因素;通过对识别结果的梳理,将错误识别进一步细分为“应搬未搬”和“搬不应搬”,并采用Mlogit模型分析验证当前政策实践中导致错误识别的根本性原因;通过构建农户家庭识别指标体系,分析并验证该指标体系的应用对提升移民搬迁瞄准效率和识别有效性的作用。通过分析不同影响因素对移民搬迁选择的作用机制和途径以及产生瞄准偏差的制度原因,本书突破了现有研究的局限性——缺乏对移民搬迁选择过程中农户生计资本和生计环境特征发挥不同作用的关注,同时构建的农户家庭识别指标体系可以有效解决政策实践中的项目遗漏和能否“搬得出”的问题。


第三,尝试厘清并界定了生计能力的概念和内涵,采用多维贫困指数表征和测量了生计能力,在此基础上提出并论证了易地扶贫搬迁对贫困山区农户生计能力影响的作用机制。以往研究多从制度环境、脆弱性背景、风险以及生计资本角度来分析和理解生计能力,而本书从多维贫困视角对生计能力进行测量的方法比以往的方法更具有可操作性。通过辨析搬迁户和非搬迁户多维贫困指数的差异,本书尝试探索易地扶贫搬迁作为外力冲击和政策干预对移民生计能力的影响路径。本书运用多元线性回归模型和Tobit模型检验了易地扶贫搬迁通过减轻农户多维贫困提升其生计能力的作用。以上发现有助于弥补现有研究在探讨移民搬迁对农户生计能力影响方面的不足,有助于加深对该作用机制的理解。上述结论也为政府通过引导式自愿性移民实现农户“稳得住”提供了理论和实证上的支撑。


第四,提出并验证了易地扶贫搬迁对贫困山区农户生计策略影响的双重作用:易地扶贫搬迁及其支持性配套措施除对农户生计策略产生直接影响外,还可以通过影响农户生计能力对其生计策略产生间接作用。通过对易地扶贫搬迁及其支持性配套措施的梳理,本书分别提出了易地扶贫搬迁对农户生计策略的间接作用机制和其支持性配套措施对农户生计策略的直接作用机制。运用倾向得分匹配法验证了易地扶贫搬迁通过改善农户生计能力提升其收入水平的作用,以及其支持性配套措施直接提升农户收入水平的作用机制,进而实现在农户层面对易地扶贫搬迁政策实施效应的全面评估。本书弥补了易地扶贫搬迁对农户生计策略的间接作用研究的不足,加深了对农户生计策略作用机制的认识,并建议在政策效应评估中考虑易地扶贫搬迁对农户生计策略影响的间接效应。本书不仅验证了移民“能致富”的生计手段,而且对移民生计模式进行了动态分析。


关键词:易地扶贫搬迁 农户生计 生计资本 生计能力 生计策略

ABSTRACT


Under the background of new urbanization,relocation and settlement is the most effective realization path of targeted poverty alleviation. With the continuous advancement of the relocation project,many problems existed in the implementation of the project have posed a challenge to the successful implementation of this activity. In this context,policymakers begin to realize the importance and urgency of the achievement of sustainable livelihood for relocated household. Relocation and settlement can repair,rebuild and improve the livelihood capability of rural household by changing their livelihood accumulation,and adjust and optimize the livelihood strategy of rural household,to complete the restructure of livelihood capital and realize the sustainable livelihood of household. However,the fragile ecological environment and external impact force and dynamic changes of policy easily lead to face new livelihood risks and livelihood dilemmas for vulnerable household in poor mountain area. It can be found that the construction of sustainable livelihood of rural household is important policy pursuit and realistic problem,and the research on the realization of the policy goal and whether rural household can realize “move out”,“settle down” and “become rich” are also full of practical significance. Through review of the past research,the influence of government-guided voluntary immigrants on farmer’s livelihood lack systematic demonstration,especially the effect of relocation on livelihood capability of rural household.


By bringing the perspective of relocation and settlement into the Sustainable Livelihood Framework,this paper improves and builds a sustainable livelihood analysis framework for the influence of relocation and settlement on rural households’ livelihood. Based on livelihood capital and livelihood environment characteristics,this paper builds the target model of household,and demonstrates the decision of the policy identification,the reason of error identification and the method of improving the validity of identification. Then this paper measures the livelihood capability of rural household with the capability approach and multi-dimensional poverty index,then empirically analyzes the influence of relocation variables on the livelihood capability of rural household. Finally,this paper examines the double impacts of relocation variables on livelihood strategy of rural household with the framework. Employing the survey data of 1404 households from Ankang City,South Shaanxi,it examines the theoretical framework with the Proxy Means Test,the A-F multidimensional poverty measurement and the propensity score matching.


Main contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows.


Firstly,this paper brings the relocation and settlement as research perspective into the Sustainable Livelihood Framework,improves and builds the Sustainable Livelihood Framework applicable to the livelihood of rural households in poor mountain area. It can be seen from the modified framework that the relocation and settlement rebuilds the livelihood capability of rural household by influencing their livelihood capital accumulation,optimizes livelihood strategy,completes the reconstruction of livelihood capital,thus realizing the sustainable livelihood of immigrants. The current research focuses on the impact of migration on livelihood capital and livelihood strategy of rural household and the relationship between livelihood capital and livelihood strategy,and the modified framework of this study effectively links sustainable livelihood theory and capacity methodology,to make up for the neglect of livelihood capability in the current research. And

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