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福利正义论pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:福利正义论pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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作者:杨朝著

出版社:社会科学文献出版社

出版时间:2020-08-01

书籍编号:30675114

ISBN:9787520166591

正文语种:中文

字数:212271

版次:

所属分类:社会科学-社会学

全书内容:

福利正义论pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

福利正义论pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

内容提要


在严格的意义上,“正义”与“福利”分属不同的研究领域——前者偏重政治学或政治哲学;后者偏重社会保障、社会政策研究。但是,二者显然不可割裂,因为“正义”尤其是社会分配的正义之实现必然涉及福利,而社会保障及其政策、制度基础如果脱离深层次的价值意旨或将迷失方向。福利的正义性研究将成为联结二者的桥梁。但是,这种正义性有着哪些具体的意涵,其价值实现的社会机制是什么,这些问题值得研究。


对这些问题的探索与思考需要一种综合的视野,需要一种将政治哲学、社会学乃至伦理学、经济学等视角有机融合的尝试和努力。


就方法论而言,本书可视为“假设检验”研究:先提出政治哲学命题,再以福利的实证研究将其验证、拓展,最后回到理论升华。


本书大体的理论框架是:正义理念遵循着两条逻辑,其一即历史逻辑;其二即结构逻辑。就历史逻辑而言,有着美德正义、神性正义、契约正义、功利正义、分配正义的历史衍变过程。当然这只是一种类型学意义的归理,并不意味着一个时代只存在一种正义理念——时代愈往后,多种正义理念相互交织,共同成为社会生活的意义旨归。但是这种多样性并未失去其递延发展的历史质性。而现代社会的正义指涉尤以分配正义为表征。依照不同的社会领域,分配正义大体可划为三个领域:交互正义、权职正义和福利正义。福利正义是本书关注的焦点。


福利正义作为现代社会分配的核心领域,有赖于前两者的社会与制度基础,并且一起共有着社会分配“应然”的价值要素:需要、应得与平等。需要是最基础的福利价值,体现着人性诉求与人本主义的社会实质;应得作为现代社会运转之“得其应得”的秩序基础也必然蕴含在福利过程之中;而平等,不仅有着自身的价值特性,还承担着对前两者的调节和平衡之责。如果对这些价值要素的实现作质性提炼,可以概括为再分配和承认两种基本途径——前者兼有宏观的资源配置与微观的福利保障、调节与平衡之分野;后者由蕴含于亲缘、地缘或某种其他共同体之中的主体间性,延续至社会团结意义的群体性承认。再分配和承认相得益彰、互为补足,共同成为福利正义实现的必由之路。二者的背后有着深层次的合法性因素——公民权利——在现代社会概化为生存权与发展权,为之提供坚实的法理基础和保障。而此机制又与契约正义、权职正义等理念有着深刻的衍通。


看待我国的福利情势,既需要一种历史的眼光,也需要一种结构的视角,更要以理论观照现实。在不同的历史时期、不同的社会领域,福利价值有着不同的侧重,有着迥然相异的实现方式,因而也有着独特的复杂性和复合气质。由于地域辽阔以及经济社会发展的不均衡,当前福利尚且存在区域、城乡、个体等层面的不平衡因素。这些问题的解决,既要宏观的资源引导与布局,也要社会关系的调节与平衡。再分配和承认要与具体社会情境相结合,在制度、规范、价值、伦理和社会的关系与结构之间找出资源流转的契合点,方能发挥应有的福利实现功能。


福利的意义并不仅限于个体层面的价值实现,它还有一个更广泛的社会意义——之于良序社会的可能。社会的运行和发展既有赖于生产方式以及价值、观念、文化等构成的所有物质和意识条件;福利本身的完善及其带来的社会关系的调适与平衡又将进一步夯实这些社会基础。正义与道德之间,既有一定的张力,也有深刻的互构;这种紧张与调适,同一定的社会实践、社会情境的结合,共同成为社会进步乃至文明的基础。

Abstract


In a strict sense,justice and welfare belong to different spheres:the former lays particular stress on politics;the later is inclined to social security or policy.But they shouldn\'t be separated,for justice,especially of social distribution,will be bound to concern welfare;and security,with their policy and institutional foundations,would lose the direction without deep value concern.Justice researches about welfare will become a bridge linking them together.Nevertheless,what\'s about the connotation of this?What is the social mechanism of its value realization?


To explore these spheres,a comprehensive visual field would be necessary,as well as the effort to integrate view points of political philosophy,sociology,even ethics and economics.As to methodology,it would be seen as “hypothesis test”,namely,the research will propose a statement of political philosophy;test and expand it in welfare sphere with empirical methods;then recur again to theoretical sublimation.


The general theoretical framework is that justice concept abides by two different logics,historical and structural.As to the former,it has evolved from virtual justice,then divine,contractual,and distributional one. Sure,it\'s just a typical induction,doesn\'t mean there is only one type in a history time,rather that the later the time,more types of justice mingle together.However,the pluralism couldn\'t eliminate the historical characteristic.In modern society,justice especially concerns distribution,in different societal spheres which can be divided into mutual,authorial,and welfare justice,the latest becoming central concern of this dissertation.


As the core sphere of social distribution,welfare justice relays on societal and institutional foundation of the two former,and possesses with them the same value elements:need,desert,and equality.“Need” is the most essential,embodies humanistic appeal and the societal essence of which.As the orderly foundation of modern society\'s functioning,“desert”is bound to contain in welfare process.And equality,not only has its special value character,but also an entitlement to adjust and make them more balanced.Different stress do these elements exert on different social process;supposing to be refined of characteristic,whose basic routes be redistribution and recognition,the former combining the interfluve as macroscopical resource-allocation and microscopical security,adjustment and balance of welfare;the later expanding from inter-subjectivity based on affiliational and genetic,or local,or other communities to group recognition of social solidarity. Redistribution and recognition are coordinated and complement each other,becoming the bound way to realization of welfare justice.There is deep legality behind them that citizenship,generalized as survival and developmental rights,endowed it substantial legal foundation and guarantee,which interlinks with conceptions of contractual and authorial justice.


To observe the situation of China\'s welfare,not only a historic purview would be needed;but also a structural one;further more,illuminating the reality with theory and reflecting theory with reality are still necessary. In social spheres of different epochs,welfare values focused distinctly,and for the distinct patterns of realization,it possesses a distinguish complication and complexity. Because of the vast territory and unbalance of economical and societal development,there are still some in-equilibrium factors in present welfare situation,laying on levels as inter-regional;urban-rural;and interpersonal.To solve these problems,not only guide and allocation of macro resources is requisite,but also the adjust and balance of social relationships.Only if coalizing with the specific societal situation,searching out the adapt responsibility of resources circulation between institutions,norms,values,ethics and society,could redistribution and recognition function in welfare realization.


The significance of welfare is not only limited in personal value,but also a more extensive one,say,a possibility to a good society. The functioning and development of society rely on all the material and ideological conditions constituted of production patterns and value,idea and culture,and so on,which would be tamped by perfectible process of welfare itself,and the coordinate and re-balance of social relationships along with. There are tensions also profound inter-structure between justice and morals;the intensity and coalition,the communal derivation and amalgamation,their integration with certain social practice and circumstances,become the foundation of social progress even

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