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常识:影响世界历史里程的书(英文原版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:常识:影响世界历史里程的书(英文原版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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作者:(美)托马斯·潘恩(ThomasPaine),李玉冰译

出版社:哈尔滨出版社

出版时间:2016-09-01

书籍编号:30304784

ISBN:9787548409137

正文语种:英文

字数:26770

版次:1

所属分类:外语学习-英语读物

全书内容:

常识:影响世界历史里程的书(英文原版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载






常识:影响世界历史里程的书(英文原版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载


Introduction


Perhaps the sentiments contained in the following pages, are not yet sufficiently fashionable to procure them general favour; a long habit of not thinking a thing wrong, gives it a superficial appearance of being right, and raises at first a formidable outcry in defence of custom.But the tumult soon subsides.Time makes more converts than reason.


As a long and violent abuse of power, is generally the Means of calling the right of it in question (and in matters too which might never have been thought of, had not the Sufferers been aggravated into the inquiry) and as the K—of England had undertaken in his own Right, to support the Parliament in what he calls Theirs, and as the good people of this country are grievously oppressed by the combination, they have an undoubted privilege to inquire into the pretensions of both, and equally to reject the usurpation of either.


In the following sheets, the author hath studiously avoided every thing which is personal among ourselves.Compliments as well as censure to individuals make no part thereof.The wise, and the worthy, need not the triumph of a pamphlet; and those whose sentiments are injudicious, or unfriendly, will cease of themselves unless too much pains are bestowed upon their conversion.


The cause of America is in a great measure the cause of all mankind.Many circumstances hath, and will arise, which are not local, but universal, and through which the principles of all Lovers of Mankind are affected, and in the Event of which, their Affections are interested.The laying a Country desolate with Fire and Sword, declaring War against the natural rights of all Mankind, and extirpating the Defenders thereof from the Face of the Earth, is the concern of every Man to whom Nature hath given the Power of feeling; of which Class, regardless of Party Censure, is the AUTHOR.


P.S.The Publication of this new Edition hath been delayed, with a View of taking notice (had it been necessary) of any Attempt to refute the Doctrine of Independence:As no Answer hath yet appeared, it is now presumed that none will, the Time needful for getting such a Performance ready for the Public being considerably past.


Who the Author of this Production is, is wholly unnecessary to the Public, as the Object for Attention is the Doctrine itself, not the Man.Yet it may not be unnecessary to say, That he is unconnected with any Party, and under no sort of Influence public or private, but the influence of reason and principle.


Philadelphia, February.14, 1776.


Of the Origin and Design of Government in General.With Concise Remarks on the English Constitution


Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave little or no distinction between them; whereas they are not only different, but have different origins.Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices.The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions.The first is a patron, the last a punisher.


Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one; for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without government, our calamities are heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer.Government, like dress, is the badge of lost innocence; the palaces of kings are built on the ruins of the bowers of paradise.For were the impulses of conscience clear, uniform, and irresistibly obeyed, man would need no other lawgiver; but that not being the case, he finds it necessary to surrender up a part of his property to furnish means for the protection of the rest; and this he is induced to do by the same prudence which in every other case advises him out of two evils to choose the least.Wherefore, security being the true design and end of government, it unanswerably follows that whatever form thereof appears most likely to ensure it to us, with the least expense and greatest benefit, is preferable to all others.


In order to gain a clear and just idea of the design and end of government, let us suppose a small number of persons settled in some sequestered part of the earth, unconnected with the rest, they will then represent the first peopling of any country, or of the world.In this state of natural liberty, society will be their first thought.A thousand motives will excite them thereto, the strength of one man is so unequal to his wants, and his mind so unfitted for perpetual solitude, that he is soon obliged to seek assistance and relief of another, who in his turn requires the same.Four or five united would be able to raise a tolerable dwelling in the midst of a wilderness, but one man might labour out the common period

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