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关于财富的形成和分配的思考pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:关于财富的形成和分配的思考pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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作者:(法)杜尔哥(AnneRobertJacquesTurgot)著

出版社:外语教学与研究出版社

出版时间:2012-11-23

书籍编号:30204916

ISBN:

正文语种:中英对照

字数:22272

版次:

所属分类:外语学习-英语读物

全书内容:

关于财富的形成和分配的思考pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

关于财富的形成和分配的思考pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

Section 1


The impossibility of the existence of Commerce upon the supposition of an equal division of lands, where every man should possess only what is necessary for his own support.


If the land was divided among all the inhabitants of a country, so that each of them possessed precisely the quantity necessary for his support, and nothing more; it is evident that all of them being equal, no one would work for another.Neither would any of them possess wherewith to pay another for his labour, for each person having only such a quantity of land as was necessary to produce a subsistence, would consume all he should gather, and would not have any thing to give in exchange for the labour of others.

Section 2


The above hypothesis neither has existed nor could continue.The diversity of soils and multiplicity of wants, compel an exchange of the productions of the earth, against other productions.


This hypothesis never can have existed, because the earth has been cultivated before it has been divided; the cultivation itself having been the only motive for a division, and for that law which secures to every one his property.For the first persons who have employed themselves in cultivation, have probably worked as much land as their strength would permit, and, consequently, more than was necessary for their own nourishment.


If this state could have existed, it could not possibly be durable; each one gathering from his field only a subsistence, and not having wherewith to pay others for their labour, would not be enabled to supply his other wants of lodging, clothing, &c.&c., except by the labour of his hands, which would be nearly impossible, as every soil does not produce every material.


The man whose land was only fit to produce grain, and would neither bring forth cotton or flax, would want linen to clothe him.Another would have ground proper for cotton, which would not yield grain.One would want wood for his fire, and another be destitute of corn to support him.Experience would soon teach every one what species of productions his land was best adapted to, and he would confine himself to the cultivation of it; in order to procure himself those things he stood in need of, by an exchange with his neighbours, who, having on their part acquired the same experience, would have cultivated those productions which were best suited to their fields, and would have abandoned the cultivation of any other.

Section 3


The productions of the earth require long and difficult preparations, before they are rendered fit to supply the wants of men.


The productions which the earth supplies to satisfy the different wants of man, will not, for the most part, administer to those wants, in the state nature affords them; it is necessary they should undergo different operations, and be prepared by art.Wheat must be converted into flour, then into bread; hides must be dressed or tanned; wool and cotton must be spun; silk must be taken from the cod; hemp and flax must be soaked, peeled, spun, and wove into different textures; then cut and sewed together again to make garments, &c.If the same man who cultivates on his own land these different articles, and who raises them to supply his wants, was obliged to perform all the intermediate operations himself, it is certain he would succeed very badly.The greater part of these preparations require care, attention, and a long experience; all which are only to be acquired by progressive labour, and that on a great quantity of materials.Let us refer, for example, to the preparation of hides:what labourer can pursue all the particular things necessary to those operations, which continue several months, sometimes several years? If he is able to do it, can he do it with a single hide? What a loss of time, of room, and of materials, which might be employed, either at the same time or successively, to tan a large quantity of skins!But should he even succeed in manning a single skin, and want one pair of shoes, what will he do with the remainder? Will he kill an ox to make this pair of shoes? Will he cut down a tree to make a pair of wooden shoes? We may say the same thing of every other want of every other man, who, if he was reduced to his field, and the labour of his own hands, would waste much time, take much trouble, be very badly equipped in every respect, and would also cultivate his lands very ill.

Section 4


The necessity of these preparations, bring on the exchange of productions for labour.


The same motive which has established the exchange of commodity for commodity, between the cultivators of lands of different natures, has also necessarily brought on the exchange of commodities for labour, between the cultivators and another portion of society, who shall have preferred the occupation of preparing and completing the productions of the earth, to the cultivation of it.Every one profits by this arrangement, for every one attaching himself to a peculiar species of labour, succeeds much better therein.The husbandman

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