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英语学习(2013年第03期)(图文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:英语学习(2013年第03期)(图文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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作者:侯毅凌著

出版社:外语教学与研究出版社

出版时间:2013-03-01

书籍编号:30199099

ISBN:

正文语种:中文

字数:

版次:

所属分类:外语学习-英语读物

全书内容:

英语学习(2013年第03期)(图文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

英语学习(2013年第03期)(图文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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影视文化笔记:


∷宋云峰
寓言、信仰和现实
——《少年派的奇幻漂流》

∷宋云峰
英语小说《少年派的奇幻漂流》(Life of Pi)在2001年出版后广受好评,2002年获得英国布克小说奖。2012年,由李安执导的改编电影也于11月感恩节档期上映,在评论和票房上获得丰收。究竟是什么因素使小说和电影均获得成功呢?本文旨在从各方评论中寻找答案。
小说
长篇英语小说《少年派的奇幻漂流》(Life of Pi)出版于2001年,作者是加拿大人杨·马特尔(Yann Martel),讲述印度少年派(“Pi”)在举家乘船前往加拿大途中因遭遇风暴和沉船而不得不独自在救生艇上与一只叫理查德·帕克(Richard Parker)的孟加拉虎一起漂流227天而幸存下来的奇幻历险故事。小说在加拿大出版(Knopf Canada)之前曾遭到至少五家英国出版社的退稿,但在英国出版(Mariner Books)后的第二年就获得了享有盛誉的“布克小说奖”(Man Booker Prize for Fiction),也受到主流媒体的普遍好评。
《泰晤士报》(Times)对该书的评语是:“Every page offers something of tension, humanity, surprise, or even ecstasy.”
《金融时报》(Financial Times)的评论将该小说与康拉德、海明威、拉什迪等名家的作品相提并论:“Absurd, macabre (恐怖的), unreliable and sad, deeply sensual (愉悦感官的) in its evoking (唤起) of smells and sights, the whole trip and the narrator\'s insanely curious voice suggests Joseph Conrad and Salman Rushdie hallucinating (使产生幻觉) together over the meaning of The Old Man and the Sea and Gulliver\'s Travels (《格列佛游记》).”
《爱尔兰时报》(Irish Times)认为:“Life of Pi is black magic and reality, a subtle and sophisticated fable about belief in its many guises (外表,伪装).”
《星期日苏格兰报》(Scotland on Sunday)认为:“Life of Pi is a great adventure story, the sort that comes along rarely and enters a select canon (精品集,真作集) at once. This would be enough to justify its existence, but it is also rich in metaphysics (形而上学,玄学), beautifully written, moving and funny.”
《旧金山纪事报》(San Francisco Chronicle)这样评价该小说:“Life of Pi is a real adventure: brutal, tender, expressive, dramatic, and disarmingly funny…It\'s difficult to stop reading when the pages run out.”
美国总统奥巴马也曾致信作者马特尔,称赞《少年派的奇幻漂流》为:“an elegant proof of God, and the power of storytelling.”
综上所述,《少年派的奇幻漂流》之所以成功得益于三个方面的因素——宗教信仰、漂流历险以及虚幻现实。这些因素可以从小说的三段结构看出来。
小说的开头部分涉及少年派名称的由来以及他对宗教信仰的态度。“He was named Piscine Molitor Patel after a swimming pool in France. He changes his name to \'Pi\' when he begins secondary school, because he is tired of being taunted (嘲笑,奚落) with the nickname\'Pissing (撒尿,小便) Patel\'. His father owns a zoo in Pondicherry, providing Pi with a relatively affluent lifestyle and some understanding of animal psychology.”“Pi is raised a Hindu, but as a fourteen-year-old he is introduced to Christianity and Islam, and starts to follow all three religions as he\'just wants to love God.\'He tries to understand God through the lens of each religion and comes to recognize benefits in each one.”


第二部分故事的主干,即少年派的奇幻漂流,也是最引人入胜的部分。“In the second part of the novel, Pi\'s family embarks (登船,上船) on a Japanese freighter (货轮) to Canada carrying some of the animals from their zoo, but a few days out of port, the ship meets a storm and capsizes (翻沉), resulting in his parents\' death. After the storm, Pi regains consciousness in a small lifeboat with a spotted hyena (鬣狗), an injured zebra, and an orangutan (猩猩).”“As Pi strives to survive among the animals, the hyena kills the zebra, then the orangutan, much to Pi\'s distress. At this point, it is discovered that a Bengal tiger named Richard Parker had been hiding under the boat\'s tarp; it kills and eats the hyena. Eventually, Richard Parker learns to tolerate Pi\'s presence and they both live in the boat. After 227 days, the lifeboat washes up onto the coast of Mexico and Richard Parker immediately escapes into the nearby jungle.”这一部分既展示了信仰对战胜厄运的强大精神作用,也暗示了人与整个生物链和大自然相互依存的辩证关系。
最后,小说的结尾将故事的虚幻与现实以及寓意留给读者来判断。“In the third part of the novel, two officials from the Japanese Ministry of Transport speak to Pi to ascertain (弄清,确定) why the ship sank. When they do not believe his story, he tells an alternate story of human brutality, in which Pi was adrift on a lifeboat with his mother, a sailor with a broken leg, and the ship\'s cook, who killed the sailor and Pi\'s mother and cut them up to use as bait (诱饵) and food. Parallels to Pi\'s first story lead the Japanese officials to believe that the orangutan represents his mother, the zebra represents the sailor, the hyena represents the cook, and Richard Parker is Pi himself. After giving all the relevant information, Pi asks which of the two stories they prefer. Since the officials cannot prove which story is true and neither is relevant to the reasons behind the shipwreck, they choose the story with the animals. Pi thanks them and says, \'and so it goes with God\'.”
电影
2012年,美籍华人导演李安(Ang Lee)将《少年派的奇幻漂流》搬上了银幕,采用3D技术拍摄。影片上映后受到好评,截至2012年12月全球票房已达近两亿四千万美元,轻松收回投资。影片分别在印度(外景)和中国台湾(特技)拍摄,其中摄制组在台中市和李安的出生地屏东县的国家公园拍摄了五个半月。影片中大多数海上历险镜头都是在一个巨型冲浪池里拍摄制作的。
鉴于去年美国电影大师马丁·斯克塞斯(Martin Scosese)类似题材影片《雨果》(Hugo)在票房上的失败,一些评论家在影片上映之前做出了不太乐观的预测。例如,鉴于影片中没有名角以及要与其他同期上映的大片竞争,《福布斯》(Forbes)评论员Dorothy Pomerantz说:“It looks like chances are very slim that the film will earn back its production and marketing costs let alone turn a profit.”洛杉矶时报(The Los Angeles Times)评论员John Horn和Ben Fritz也将该片与2011年感恩节档期上映的3D效果大片《雨果》相比,预测结果会类似——由于“failing to connect with moviegoers”而成为“financial failure”。其它媒体也做出了类似的预测。
然而结果却有些出人意外。《少年派的奇幻漂流》上映一个月以来,在票房和影评方面均获得令人满意的结果。Rotten Tomatoes平均影评打分为88分(其中153篇正面评价,20篇负面评价)。Metacritic上的影评平均打分则为78分

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