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美国学生科学读本(英汉双语版)(套装上下册)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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美国学生科学读本(英汉双语版)(套装上下册)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:美国学生科学读本(英汉双语版)(套装上下册)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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作者:(美)斯奈德,贺巍译

出版社:天津人民出版社

出版时间:2013-04-01

书籍编号:30143745

ISBN:9787201080727

正文语种:中文

字数:237962

版次:1

所属分类:外语学习-英语读物

全书内容:

美国学生科学读本(英汉双语版)(套装上下册)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载








FOREWORD
译者序


小时候,我们每个人似乎都曾有过一个湛蓝色的科学梦。在那个以天空、大海为背景的梦境中,我们不断追问着一个又一个“什么”和“为什么”:是什么构成了我们的宇宙?为什么世间万物的运动变化这么有规律?地球为什么是圆的?地球的核心里面到底是什么,有神仙吗?为什么大自然有如此绚丽多姿的色彩?为什么生命世界有如此温婉动人的故事?为什么会有我们人类?


今天,科学的发展前沿,已经到了宇宙的边缘和物质最基本的粒子层面,直逼宇宙万物最为核心的部分。我们曾经的这些“梦之问”大多已经有了答案,但是还有不少依然悬而未决。一代又一代的科学家和教育家们,不断地在追寻答案的路上给我们带来好消息,进而又在书本上和教室里娓娓道来,认真而深情地讲给孩子们听。你眼前的这本书,就是这样诞生的。


此书是美国洛杉矶一位名叫威廉·H·斯奈德(William H. Snyder)的中学校长,和他的同事一起,为中学生编著的一本自然科学入门教材。这位校长虽名不见经传,但他广博而细密的自然科学知识却不得不令人钦佩,几乎将当时所有科学门类的基础知识都融进了本书。从日常物体的运动到太阳系的组成;从江河湖海的欢歌笑语到大陆高山的沉吟咏叹;从微小细菌的自生自灭到动植物与人类的生命活动;从风霜雨雪的翻姿飞舞到春夏秋冬的律吕变换……书中应有尽有,每一章都是孩子们感兴趣的一个领域。其中的每一小节,又都是紧扣着主题的阐发与讲述,语调平实生动,情感真挚感人,宛如一位慈祥的老人注视着孩子们充满稚气的眼睛,讲述着一个又一个动人的故事……


翻开此书,我们便似乎回到了美国洛杉矶的中学课堂上,教堂的钟声还在远处回荡,翻飞的黄叶在微风中飘落到窗台上,这位温厚的老校长正和颜悦色地给我们讲述着地球与太阳、昆虫与花朵、高山与大地、天风与海浪。


这里我还想指出作者在书中有意无意地表露出来的两个重要的“微言大义”。


第一,自然条件对人类文明进程的影响。作者在每一章的末尾,都会拿一小节专门讲述该要素对人类的影响,这是一个重要的史观。历史的演进往往并非完全决定于人为,而是跟自然地理条件大有关系。这样的事例古今中外皆不少见,历史学家黄仁宇先生在谈及著名的淝水之战时,就曾将这一影响后来数百年中国政治格局的战役归因为地理原因,他说:“北人所擅长的骑兵战术,至此地已无法做到有效发挥。南人所长的水军,不仅兵力以舟楫输送,能够争取战场主动,而且将士无行军之劳,粮糈有速达之效。只是这种长处,也不能向北延伸使用。淝水之战时,双方受地形限制的情形,已现其端倪”。本书中这样有趣的例子还有很多,当然也都非常有启发意义,这算是我们在收获科学知识之余,又能体会到的一个史学视角。


第二,对客观世界如何导致生命产生的追问。书中在讲述每一个大自然的环境要素时,作者都会附带提到它对生命诞生的重要性或者促进性。比如大陆与海洋的面积比率、地球与太阳和月亮的距离、大气层的构成、水的特性、土壤的运化、生物体的自身构造等等。虽然作者没有给出这一切为何如此精准巧合的答案,甚至连这个问题也没有正式提出来,但是我们作为后来的读者,不妨对此问题稍稍留意。其实这个问题已经被理论物理学家、宇宙学家、哲学家和神学家们和反复思考和辩论过,并形成了今天的“人择原理”,更进一步产生了强弱不同的数个版本,科学家们至今还在为此争论不已。虽然这个问题到现在依然没有答案,甚至会不会有答案也不知道,但此书从不同侧面给这个问题拉开了序幕,给我们的思考空间也留了很大的余地。


最后要说一说此书的语言。整本书的英语原文平实而舒缓,虽然不乏专业术语,但主体依然醇厚耐读,对于正在学习英语的中学生朋友来说,也是一本上佳的课外阅读范本。


科学梦关乎人类最本真的心灵,对未知世界的好奇与探求更是人类文明永不歇绝的动力。科学的进步也需要一代又一代人前仆后继的努力,这就是科学的托命。正如1988年诺贝尔物理学奖得主莱德曼所坚信的:


在全世界60亿人口中,一定有一颗年轻的、与爱因斯坦同样智慧的心,在等待着被发掘。


这颗心在哪里呢?会是你吗?


贺巍(新浪微博@南山薰风)


2012年12月于成都 翠屏湾

CHAPTER 1
THE EARTH AND ITS NEIGHBORS
地球和它的邻居们
1. The Evening Sky. —As the light of the sun fades in the evening, we see the stars coming out one by one until at last the sky is studded with them. We notice, too, that the brighter the star is, the sooner it appears. In the morning, just the reverse of this takes place, the stars begin gradually to fade, and the brightest stars are the last to disappear.

PART OF THE MILKY WAY.
The plate for this photograph was exposed ten hours and a quarter.
We know how brilliant the light of a match or candle appears in a dark room, and how a light of this kind seems to fade out when it is brought into the presence of a strong electric light. It would seem quite probable that the vast light of the sun might have the same effect upon the light of the stars. This supposition is also supported by the fact that when the sun is covered in an eclipse the stars begin to appear as in the evening. Astronomers are all agreed that if it were not for the greater brilliancy of the sun we should see the heavens full of stars all the time.

DOME OF THE 60-INCH REFLECTING TELESCOPE AT MT. WILSON SOLAR OBSERVATORY.
Pictures of the heavens are taken through a telescope.
In the northern hemisphere the stars, except those at the north, which seem to go around in a circle, appear to rise in the east and to set in the west, just as the sun does. If we observe the stars which rise to the east, southeast, and northeast of us, we shall find that these are above the horizon for different lengths of time.
The ancients noticed these facts, and explained them by saying that the earth was at the center of a hollow sphere, upon the inner surface of which were the stars, and that this sphere was continually revolving about the earth and also slightly changing its position in respect to the earth. We of the present day know that it is the earth that is turning around on an imaginary axis, and also gradually changing its position in relation to the stars. We also know that this axis, if extended far enough, would almost strike a star in the center of the northern heavens, which we call the North Star. The points on the surface of the earth through which the axis passes are called the poles.
2. The Earth as one of the Planets. —If we carefully observe the bright points which appear in the sky at night, we shall see that almost all of them shine with a twinkling light. There are, however, three of the brightest which give a steady light like that of the moon. When the positions of these three bodies are carefully observed for some time, it will be seen that they are continually changing their places among the stars, whereas the positions of the stars do not appear to change in relation to each other.
One of these three brightest points has a reddish brown color and has been named Mars, from the Roman god of war. The other two bear the names Venus and Jupiter, one named from the goddess of beauty and the other from the king of the Roman gods. Astronomers call the earth and these three bodies, together with four others, planets, and tell us that they revolve around the sun as a center. They h

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