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培根随笔(中文导读英文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:培根随笔(中文导读英文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

推荐语:

作者:(英)培根,王勋,纪飞、等译

出版社:清华大学出版社

出版时间:2012-11-01

书籍编号:30143377

ISBN:9787302303381

正文语种:中英对照

字数:65682

版次:1

所属分类:外语学习-英语读物

全书内容:

培根随笔(中文导读英文版)


[英]培根 著


王勋 纪飞 等 编译


清华大学出版社

前言


弗兰西斯·培根(Francis Bacon,1561—1626),文艺复兴后期英国著名的哲学家、思想家和作家,被马克思称为“英国唯物主义和整个现代实验科学的真正始祖”。特别是,他提出的“知识就是力量”的著名论断,已成为许多人的座右铭。


培根1561年1月22日出生于伦敦一个贵族家庭。父亲是英国女王的掌玺大臣,思想进步;母亲是一位颇有名气的才女,精通希腊文和拉丁文。良好的家庭环境使培根在很小的时候就开始博览群书。不到13岁,培根便进入著名的剑桥大学三一学院学习。三年后,培根作为英国驻法大使的随员来到了法国。旅居法国期间,他接触到许多的新鲜事物,对他的思想形成产生了非常大的作用。1582年,培根取得了律师资格;1584年,当选为国会议员。1602年,伊丽莎白女王去世,詹姆士一世继位。由于主张苏格兰与英格兰合并,培根因此受到詹姆士一世的赞赏,并于1602年受封为爵士,1604年被任命为国王詹姆士的顾问,1607年被任命为副检察长,1613年被委任为首席检察官,1616年被任命为枢密院顾问,1617年提升为掌玺大臣,1618年晋升为英格兰的大陆官,授封为维鲁兰男爵,1621年又授封为奥尔本斯子爵。与此同时,他在学术研究上也取得了巨大的成果,出版了多部著作。1621年,培根被国会指控贪污受贿,虽被豁免,但却因此而身败名裂。从此培根不理政事,开始专心从事著书立说。


1620年,培根总结了他的哲学思想,出版了《新工具》一书。在书中他响亮地提出了“知识就是力量”的观点。他指出,要想控制自然、利用自然,就必须掌握科学知识。他认为真正的哲学必须研究自然,研究科学。该书的出版,得到了全欧洲学者的极大赞赏,因为这种思想既是对反动的经院哲学的有力批判,也是对人们探索自然的鼓励。培根不仅是一位著名的哲学家,还是一位杰出的散文作家。在他的一生中,虽然有繁杂的事务分心,可他在写作上从来没有懈怠过,他一生写下了许多不朽的著作,其中最著名的传世之作是1624年出版的《论说文集》(也称《培根随笔》)。该书文笔优美、语言凝练、寓意深刻。在这本书中,他从各种角度论述了对人与社会、人与自己、人与自然的关系的许多独到而精辟的见解,使许许多多人从这本书中获得熏陶、得到指导。《培根随笔》与蒙田的《随笔集》、帕斯卡尔《思想录》一起,被誉为欧洲近代哲理散文三大经典。出版400多年来,《培根随笔》先后被译成世界上几十种语言,在世界各地拥有无数的忠实读者。


在中国,《培根随笔》同样是广大读者喜爱的世界经典散文作品之一,因此,我们决定编译该作品,并采用中文导读英文版的形式出版。在中文导读中,我们尽力使其贴近原作的精髓,也尽可能保留原作的叙述主线。我们希望能够编出为当代中国读者所喜爱的经典读本。读者在阅读英文文本之前,可以先阅读中文导读,这样有利于了解故事背景,从而加快阅读速度。我们相信,该经典著作的引进对加强当代中国读者,特别是青少年读者的科学素养和人文修养是非常有帮助的。


本书主要内容由王勋、纪飞编译。参加本书故事素材搜集整理及编译工作的还有郑佳、刘乃亚、赵雪、熊金玉、李丽秀、熊红华、王婷婷、孟宪行、胡国平、李晓红、贡东兴、陈楠、邵舒丽、冯洁、王业伟、徐鑫、王晓旭、周丽萍、熊建国、徐平国、肖洁、王小红等。限于我们的科学、人文素养和英语水平,书中一定会有一些不当之处,衷心希望读者朋友批评指正。

1.论真理/Of Truth
导读
有的人毫无原则,认为拥有信念相当于戴上枷锁。探索真理之路很艰辛,真理会约束人的想法,再加上谎言更能迎合人类的某些劣根性,这就是人们宁愿相信谎言而不愿追随真理的原因。真理就像珍珠,只在日光下最为澄澈,不像谎言如同红玉或钻石,只在摇曳不定的烛光中幻化浮光。但无论如何,真理就是自身的尺度。神圣的教义是:追求真理、认识真理且信赖真理,才是人性中的最高美德。即使卑劣的人也不能不承认光明正大是一种崇高的德行,而伪善正如假币,也许可以扩大流通量,但却贬低了事物的真正价值。
What is truth? said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer. Certainly there be, that delight in giddiness, and count it a bondage to fix a belief; affecting free-will in thinking, as well as in acting. And though the sects of philosophers of that kind be gone, yet there remain certain discoursing wits, which are of the same veins, though there be not so much blood in them, as was in those of the ancients. But it is not only the difficulty and labor, which men take in finding out of truth, nor again, that when it is found, it imposeth upon men’s thoughts, that doth bring lies in favor; but a natural though corrupt love, of the lie itself. One of the later school of the Grecians, examineth the matter, and is at a stand, to think what should be in it, that men should love lies; where neither they make for pleasure, as with poets, nor for advantage, as with the merchant; but for the lie’s sake. But I cannot tell; this same truth, is a naked, and open day-light, that doth not show the masks, and mummeries, and triumphs, of the world, half so stately and daintily as candle-lights. Truth may perhaps come to the price of a pearl, that showeth best by day; but it will not rise to the price of a diamond, or carbuncle, that showeth best in varied lights. A mixture of a lie doth ever add pleasure. Doth any man doubt, that if there were taken out of men’s minds, vain opinions, flattering hopes, false valuations, imaginations as one would, and the like, but it would leave the minds, of a number of men, poor shrunken things, full of melancholy and indisposition, and unpleasing to themselves?
One of the fathers, in great severity, called poesy vinum doemonum, because it filleth the imagination; and yet, it is but with the shadow of a lie. But it is not the lie that passeth through the mind, but the lie that sinketh in, and settleth in it, that doth the hurt; such as we spake of before. But, howsoever these things are thus in men’s depraved judgments, and affections, yet truth, which only doth judge itself, teacheth that the inquiry of truth, which is the love-making, or wooing of it, the knowledge of truth, which is the presence of it, and the belief of truth, which is the enjoying of it, is the sovereign good of human nature. The first creature of God, in the works of the days, was the light of the sense; the last, was the light of reason; and his sabbath work ever since, is the illumination of his Spirit. First he breathed light, upon the face of the matter or chaos; then he breathed light, into the face of man; and still he breatheth and inspireth light, into the face of his chosen. The poet, that beautified the sect, that was otherwise inferior to the rest, saith yet excellently well: It is a pleasure, to stand upon the shore, and to see ships tossed upon the sea; a pleasure, to stand in the window of a castle, and to see a battle, and the adventures thereof below: but no pleasure is comparable to the standing upon the vantage ground of truth (a hill not to be commanded, and where the air is always clear and serene), and to see the errors, and wanderings, and mists, and tempests, in the vale below; so always that this prospect be with pity, and not with swelling, or pride. Certainly, it is heaven upon earth, to have a man’s mind move in charity,

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