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蒙田随笔全集·第3卷(中文导读英文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

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蒙田随笔全集·第3卷(中文导读英文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:蒙田随笔全集·第3卷(中文导读英文版)pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

推荐语:

作者:(法)蒙田(Montaigne,M.D.),王勋,纪飞、等译

出版社:清华大学出版社

出版时间:2012-07-01

书籍编号:30143353

ISBN:9787302290537

正文语种:中英对照

字数:183878

版次:1

所属分类:外语学习-英语读物

全书内容:

蒙田随笔全集·第3卷(中文导读英文版)


(法)蒙田(Montaigne,M.D.)著


王勋 纪飞 等 编译


清华大学出版社

前言


米歇尔·德·蒙田(Michel de Montaigne,1533—1592),文艺复兴后期法国著名的思想家、文学家。


蒙田1533年2月18日生于法国南部佩里戈尔地区蒙田城堡的一个贵族家庭。他的父亲是一位继承了丰厚家产的商人,还多次被任命为波尔多市市长。1549年,蒙田进入图卢兹大学学习法律,毕业后进入法院工作。1562年,他在巴黎高等法院宣誓效忠天主教。之后,蒙田曾两次任波尔多市市长。1568年,在父亲去世之后,蒙田成了蒙田城堡的领主。1571年,蒙田回到蒙田城堡,开始隐居读书生活。


自1571年起一直到他逝世,蒙田在隐居阅读、游历和生活中随时写下了许多心得体会,并称之为随笔。1580年,《随笔》第一卷和第二卷出版。1592年9月13日,蒙田逝世。1595年,在他去世三年后,《蒙田随笔》全集(共三卷)出版。蒙田以博学著称,在《蒙田随笔》全集中,日常生活、传统习俗、宗教、人生哲理等等无所不谈,特别是旁征博引了许多古希腊、罗马时代作家的论述。书中,作者还对自己作了大量的描写与剖析,使人阅读起来有娓娓而谈的亲切之感,增加了作品的文学趣味。《蒙田随笔》是16世纪各种思潮和各种知识经过分析的总汇,有“生活的哲学”之美称。书中语言平易通畅,富于生活情趣,在法国散文史上占有非常重要的地位。


1613年,《蒙田随笔》被译成英语;1633年,被译成意大利语……出版400多年来,《蒙田随笔》先后被译成世界上几十种语言,在世界各地拥有无数的忠实读者。蒙田是启蒙运动以前法国的知识权威和批评家,是一位人类感情冷峻的观察家,也是对各民族文化,特别是西方文化进行冷静研究的学者。启蒙运动时期一大批文学巨匠,像英国的培根、法国的卢梭等都吸收借鉴了蒙田随笔的风格,他因此被后人尊奉为随笔的鼻祖。从他的思想和感情来看,人们可以把他看成是那个时代出现的一个现代人。该书曾入选英国作家毛姆开列的“真正杰作文学书”书目和美国学者唐斯开列的“塑造当代文明的111本书”书目。


在中国,《蒙田随笔》同样是广大读者喜爱的世界经典散文作品之一,该作品的版本数量也有数十个。基于这个原因,我们决定编译该作品,并采用中文导读英文版的形式出版。在中文导读中,我们尽力使其贴近原作的精髓,也尽可能保留原作的叙述主线。我们希望能够编出为当代中国读者所喜爱的经典读本。读者在阅读英文文本之前,可以先阅读中文导读部分,这样有利于了解故事背景,从而加快阅读速度。我们相信,该经典著作的引进对加强当代中国读者,特别是青少年读者的科学素养和人文修养是非常有帮助的。


本书主要内容由王勋、纪飞编译。参加本书故事素材搜集整理及编译工作的还有郑佳、刘乃亚、赵雪、熊金玉、李丽秀、熊红华、王婷婷、孟宪行、胡国平、李晓红、贡东兴、陈楠、邵舒丽、冯洁、王业伟、徐鑫、王晓旭、周丽萍、熊建国、徐平国、肖洁、王小红等。限于我们的科学、人文素养和英语水平,书中难免会有不当之处,衷心希望读者朋友批评指正。

第一章 论功利与诚实 Chapter 1 Of Profit and Honesty
谁都难免说傻话,可悲的是还说得很起劲。这事跟我无关。我的傻话都是漫不经心时傻里傻气说出来的。想说就说,随说随忘,毫不在乎。傻成怎样也就怎样对待,绝不贩卖。我对着白纸说话与对着人说话一样,求的是真。
我们的制度,不论在公共还是私人领域,处处都不完美,但不能说它无用,无用就是它的作用。我们生来则由病态的品性黏合而成,野心、嫉妒、羡慕、报复、迷信、失望,与生俱来,难以改变,从野兽身上可以看到这些影子,包括残忍性在内。因此,我们看到别人受苦,内心不但不同情,还会产生一种说不出来的幸灾乐祸的快感。然而,谁消除了这些品质的种子,便也摧毁了人性的基本条件。
同样,在我们的制度中,有一些必要的职能,不仅是恶劣的,还是罪恶的。这些罪恶不但有它们的位子,并且不断对我们产生影响,正如我们的健康要靠毒药维持。我经常看到一些法官通过舞弊、许愿或宽恕,使用哄吓、诈骗等手段来诱使罪人招供,我感到很气愤。我痛恨这种不讲信义的法律。
同时,由于我很不乐意为了一位君王去背叛一个普通人,我也就不会为了一个普通人去背叛一位君王。我也曾几次参与君王之间的谈判,在分歧与不和中进行斡旋。我竭力避免因我而产生误解,因而把最强烈的意见和盘托出,而不似那些掩饰自己的心意,假装中立迎合别人的人。我是个稚嫩的谈判新手,幸运的是至今一切顺利。我开诚布公,因而与人初次交往就深得人心,取得信任。我直言不讳时,言辞激烈,不计后果,然而我必须要让那些先生们看到,我并不是在谋一己之利。

法官诱骗罪人招供
No man is free from speaking foolish things; but the worst on’t is, when a man labours to play the fool:
“Nae iste magno conatu magnas nugas dixerit.”
[“Truly he, with a great effort will shortly say a mighty trifle.”
—Terence, Heaut., act iii., s. 4.]
This does not concern me; mine slip from me with as little care as they are of little value, and ’tis the better for them. I would presently part with them for what they are worth, and neither buy nor sell them, but as they weigh. I speak on paper, as I do to the first person I meet; and that this is true, observe what follows.
To whom ought not treachery to be hateful, when Tiberius refused it in a thing of so great importance to him? He had word sent him from Germany that if he thought fit, they would rid him of Arminius by poison: this was the most potent enemy the Romans had, who had defeated them so ignominiously under Varus, and who alone prevented their aggrandisement in those parts.
He returned answer, “that the people of Rome were wont to revenge themselves of their enemies by open ways, and with their swords in their hands, and not clandestinely and by fraud”: wherein he quitted the profitable for the honest. You will tell me that he was a braggadocio; I believe so too: and ’tis no great miracle in men of his profession. But the acknowledgment of virtue is not less valid in the mouth of him who hates it, forasmuch as truth forces it from him, and if he will not inwardly receive it, he at least puts it on for a decoration.
Our outward and inward structure is full of imperfection; but there is nothing useless in nature, not even inutility itself; nothing has insinuated itself into this universe that has not therein some fit and proper place. Our being is cemented with sickly qualities: ambition, jealousy, envy, revenge, superstition, and despair have so natural a possession in us, that its image is discerned in beasts; nay, and cruelty, so unnatural a vice; for even in the midst of compassion we feel within, I know not what tart-sweet titillation of ill-natured pleasure in seeing others suffer; and the children feel it:
“Suave mari magno, turbantibus aequora ventis,
E terra magnum alterius spectare laborem:”
[“It is sweet, when the winds disturb the waters of the vast sea, to
witness from land the peril of other persons.”—Lucretius, ii. I.]
of the seeds of which qualities, whoever should divest man, would destroy the fundamental conditions of human life. Likewise, in all governments there are necessary offices, not only abject, but vicious also. Vices there help to make up the seam in our piecing, as poisons are useful for the conservation of health. If they become excusable because they are of use to us, and that the common necessity covers their true qualities, we are to resign this part to the strongest and boldest citizens, who sacrifice their honour and conscience, as others of old sacrificed their lives, for the good of their country: we, who are weaker, take upon us parts both that are more easy a

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