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英语专业八级考试培训教程:听力pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

书名:英语专业八级考试培训教程:听力pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载

推荐语:

作者:林棽编

出版社:中国人民大学出版社

出版时间:2012-08-01

书籍编号:30132869

ISBN:9787300162324

正文语种:英文

字数:65007

版次:1

所属分类:外语学习-大学/研究生英语

全书内容:

英语专业八级考试培训教程:听力pdf/doc/txt格式电子书下载








前言


英语专业八级考试(TEM-8)是所有英语专业学生在经过三年多的学习后,验证自己是否达到英语专业大纲要求的唯一标准。在历时 195分钟的考试中,首要挑战就是听力部分。自 2005年考试改革后,英语听力部分的难度大幅提高,严格考核大纲所要求的综合语言技能和交际能力。专八听力考试占时 35分钟,分数比例占 20%,可以说,听力部分按时间比,占相当高的分数比例。


专八听力是对综合能力的测试,涵盖英语的词汇、语法、人文常识等知识。考生词汇量应在 8 000--10 000,语法中要熟悉各种长难句,能用听力划分句子的主从句,判断平行结构,并且有效归纳总结文章的整体结构等。考生应对英美国家常识有熟练的掌握,同时对国际关系、国际政治、经济、文化有较宽的知识面。


本书按照英语专业八级的三个题型,即讲座、访谈和新闻听力,分别进行技巧讲解、真题精讲及模拟练习。技巧讲解目的在于破解题目的出题方式和解题策略,真题精讲部分使考生能昀大限度地把握历年真题的脉络,模拟练习部分紧贴真题出题思路,有效地训练听力技巧和能力。昀后一部分热点新闻分类词汇为近年来的热点新闻词汇,对常用的名词、动词及搭配进行归纳总结。


总之,英语八级考试既是对英语专业知识和能力的考核,又要求技巧和策略的熟练应用。具备了扎实的语言文化知识和正确的解题方法,在听力部分拿到比较满意的成绩,并非难事。

1 讲座 Mini-Lecture


讲座(Mini-Lecture)填空一般为一篇 800字左右的专题性文字,模拟的场景多为讲座或者课程介绍,内容多为语言学、文化以及艺术类话题,不会涉及过于专业的问题。选文结构清晰,逻辑性强。Mini-Lecture的难点在于考生做题前无法阅读题目,全部依靠笔记和短期记忆来解答 10道填空题。其主要考查的能力为:


1.对文章的整体结构的理解,以及能否区分主论点及分论点的能力。


2.对文章细节信息的理解,比如概念定义、例证以及分析。


3.总结概括(summarize)的能力。

1.1 技巧讲解


听讲座的一个误区,就是强求百分之百听懂每一个细节,只见树木,不见森林。而讲座的特点恰恰就在于其为介绍性及概括性的文字。因此,在昀短的时间内抓住讲座的主题以及逻辑结构,不仅有助于迅速区分重要细节与无关细节,并且能精准确定笔记记录的主要关键任务,既保证全文笔记的完整性,又不漏掉重要细节。

1.1.1 破解主题


听懂文章的主题关键在于从讲座的开头段中寻找关键信息,即主题词和其定义。从历年的真题来看,讲座的开头一般有两种类型:一、开门见山型。二、驳斥传统观点引出新观点型。第一种类型的讲座在开篇直接给出主题及对关键名词的定义。第二种类型首先会介绍与主题相关的观点或者背景知识,需要准确鉴别信息,定位真正的讲座主题是什么。


第一种即开门见山型的好处是简单明了,但也存在难点,即信息量密集,给考生的反应时间缩短。


比如 2010年的讲座:


Good morning, everyone. Today we\'ll continue our discussion on describing language. Last week we examined such features of language as grammar, vocabulary, the sounds of language, etc. In this lecture, we\'ll look at another important aspect of language. Perhaps some of you may wonder what is this important aspect of language. Let me tell you. It refers to features of communication that takes place without the use of grammar or vocabulary. They are called“paralinguistic features of language”. These features fall into two broad categories: those that involve voice and those that involve the body.


讲座在简单回顾了前一周的课程内容后,直接进入本周要讨论的内容。此篇讲座首先以一个过渡句引起学生的注意,即“In this lecture, we\'ll look at another important aspect of language”,使学生做好笔记的准备。接下来首先提供了一个重要的定义,“features of communication that takes place without the use of grammar or vocabulary”,然后再提出名词,即“paralinguistic features of language”。至此可知,文章的主题为语言的副语言特征,全文将对其进行详细论述。


另外,开门见山型的题目有时会使用设问句来引导主题,比如 2008年的讲座:


As we all know, English is widely used in the world. Although English is not the language with the largest number of native orfirst language speakers, it has really become a lingua franca. Then what is a lingua franca? The term refers to a language which is widely adopted for communication between two speakers whose native languages are different from each others and where one or both speakers are using it as a second language. For example, when an Indian talks to a Singaporean using English, then English is the lingua franca.


在首先引出一个比较生僻的词组,lingua franca即通用语后,用一个设问句“Then what is a lingua franca?”引出定义,即“The term refers to a language which is widely adopted for communication between two speakers whose native languages are different from each others and where one or both speakers are using it as a second language.”并随后举例说明,此时即可掌握文章的主题并预测随后论述的重点。


第二种类型的讲座一般由一个传统的或者普遍的观点引入,讲座通过对这个观点的分析及驳斥引出真正的观点,往往是截然相反的态度,因此要注意识别讲座的真正观点。这种类型的题目提供了更多的理解时间,以及关键名词的记录时间。比如 2011年的讲座:


Good morning everyone, today we\'ll look at culture or rather classifications of cultures. Usually when we deal with different people, we deal with them as if we were all members of the same culture. However, it\'s possible that people from different cultures have different assumptions about the world, regarding such important and basic ideas as time, personal space. And this is the view of Edward Hall. And Edward Hall is an anthropologist who spent a large part of his life studying American Indians, their culture, their language, but he was different from a lot of other anthropologists who just study one culture. He was interested in the relations between cultures, how cultures interact, what Hall believes is that cultures can be classified by placing them on a continuum, ranging from what he called high-context to low-context.


讲座虽然在一开始就提出了文化的分类 (classification of cultures)的主题,但并没有直接进入讲座的重点内容,而是通过“usually”这个关键词介绍了普遍流行的观点,即“we deal with them as if we were all members of the same culture”。真正的观点出现在“however”后,即“it\'s possible that people from different cultures have different assumptions about the world, regarding such important and basic ideas as time, personal space”。之后引导出 Edward Hall的观点并进行深入解释。


因此,正确识别这两种常见的开头有助于准确抓住文章的中心论点,并初步理解生僻的概念性词汇。初步理解后,也能大胆预测后文的论述内容,并有选择地做笔记。

1.1.2 结构与逻辑
在听懂讲座的中心后,下一步就要听懂全文的结构和逻辑。讲座所选取的文章一般具有很强的线性结构性,一般为经典的主题句 +分论点 +论据形式:
·Introduction
—Opening (general / traditional concept)
—Thesis Statement/Definition
—Classi.cation
·Supporting Idea A/Classification 1
—Definition
—Examples 1/2/3/4/5…
·Supporting Idea B/Classification 2
—Definition
—Examples 1/2/3/4/5…
·Supporting Idea C/Classification 3
—Definition
—Examples 1/2/3/4/5…
·Conclusion
—Brief Review of the Lecture
在提出中心

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